【目的】长期高强度的连作及大量化肥施用导致红壤旱地退化和土传植物病原菌累积。真菌是农业生态系统中与土壤健康密切相关的微生物。本文通过研究土壤真菌群落的变化，探究施用毛叶苕子对红壤旱地农业生态系统的影响。【方法】采用定量聚合酶链式反应和高通量测序技术，研究红壤旱地真菌群落对单施矿质肥（mineral nitrogen，phosphorus and potassium fertilization，NPK）与矿质肥配施毛叶苕子（mineral nitrogen，phosphorus and potassium fertilization with hairy vetch，NPKG） 2种施肥措施的响应。【结果】与对照NPK相比，NPKG显著提高土壤肥力、花生产量和土壤真菌丰度，降低土壤pH和土壤真菌多样性。不同处理显著改变土壤真菌群落组成。与对照NPK相比，NPKG处理土壤腐生营养型真菌相对丰度显著提高37.42%，花生尾孢菌（Cercospora arachidicola）和可可毛色二孢菌（Lasiodiplodia theobromae） 2种花生病原菌相对丰度分别降低89.11%和88.10%。【结论】施用毛叶苕子显著提高了红壤旱地肥力，降低了花生土传病害风险，提高了花生作物产量。因此，施用毛叶苕子有利于我国南方红壤旱地的可持续发展。
[Objective] The long-term intense continuous cropping and abuse of mineral fertilizers result in the degradation of upland red soil and the accumulation of soil-borne plant pathogens. Fungi are the microorganisms closely related to soil health in agroecosystems. We investigated the changes of soil fungal community to explore the effects of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth L.) application on the agroecosystem with upland red soil. [Methods] We employed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and high-throughput sequencing (Illumina MiSeq) to investigate the responses of fungal communities to mineral fertilizer (hereinafter referred to as NPK) alone and mineral fertilizer combined with hairy vetch (hereinafter referred to as NPKG) in upland red soil. [Results] Compared with NPK, NPKG increased the soil fertility, peanut yield, and fungal abundance and decreased soil pH and soil fungal diversity. Different treatments significantly altered the soil fungal community composition. Compared with NPK, NPKG increased the relative abundance of saprophytic fungi by 37.42% and decreased the relative abundance of Cercospora arachidicola and Lasidiplodia theobromae by 89.11% and 88.10%, respectively. [Conclusion] The application of hairy vetch significantly increased soil fertility, reduced the risk of peanut exposure to soil-borne diseases, and increased peanut yield in the upland red soil. Therefore, the application of hairy vetch was conducive to the sustainable development of upland red soil in southern China.
赵竟茹,晏蒙,吴远诺,刘天赐,李绍兵,冷珂,项兴佳,刘佳. 添加毛叶苕子对红壤旱地土壤真菌群落的影响. 微生物学报, 2024, 64(2): 581-596复制