[目的] 揭示地表锂矿石表面和风化产物中细菌群落多样性特征。[方法] 针对细菌16S rRNA片段扩增进行高通量测序，分析不同锂矿石表面及其风化产物中细菌群落组成、多样性及功能属性等信息。[结果] 河南卢氏南阳山伟晶岩型锂矿石和江西宜春花岗岩型锂矿石表面及其风化产物的细菌群落多样性有差异。南阳山伟晶岩矿石与其风化产物、宜春花岗岩矿石表面和风化产物（NK-1、NK-1F、YK-1、YK-1F、YK-2、YK-2F、YK-3）的OTUs分别是1010、540、835、828、1117、974和604，其差异与不同的矿物组成显著关联。两矿山均有其优势微生物，在门水平上，两矿山均以放线菌门（Actinobacteria）、变形菌门（Proteobacteria）为优势菌门。同时两矿区微生物群落组成具有显著差异性（P<0.05），不同地理位置风化产物样本之间差异尤为显著（P<0.001）；在属水平上，NK-1中相对丰度大于5%的属为鞘氨醇单胞菌属（Sphingomonas）、马赛菌属（Massilia）；NK-1F为类芽孢杆菌属（Paenibacillus）、杆状细菌属（Bacillus）、马赛菌属（Massilia）；YK-1F为芽球菌属（Blastococcus）、念珠菌固体杆菌属（Candidatus-Solibacter）、Noviherbaspirillum属、伯克霍尔德氏菌属（Burkholderia-Caballeronia-Paraburkholderia），YK-2为unidentified-Chloroplast属，YK-2F为北里孢菌属（Kitasatospora），YK-3为1174-901-12属、甲基杆菌属（Methylobacterium）。不同地理位置的矿石及其风化物样本的功能注释均涉及代谢、遗传信息处理、环境信息处理等6个代谢通路。[结论] 16S rRNA高通量测序揭示不同地区锂矿石及其风化产物的细菌多样性存在差异，各具优势类群，样本间菌落组成、多样性及功能属性的差异与锂矿石化学组成、风化程度和地理分布密切相关。这项研究揭示了优势微生物类群的元素地球化学功能与含锂矿物地表风化的潜在联系，可为微生物生态分布研究及相关微生物资源开发提供新数据。
[Objective] To reveal the diversity of bacterial communities on the surface of lithium ores and weathering products on the ground. [Methods] We performed high-throughput sequencing for the amplification of bacterial 16S rRNA fragments, and analyzed the composition, diversity and functional properties of bacterial communities on the terrestrial surface of different lithium ores and their weathering products.[Results] The bacterial community diversity on the surface of pegmatite-type lithium ores and its weathering products in Nanyangshan, Lushi, Henan Province was different from that on the granite-type lithium ores in Yichun, Jiangxi Province. The OTUs of Nanyangshan pegmatite ores and weathering products, Yichun granite ores surface and weathering products (NK-1, NK-1F, YK-1, YK-1F, YK-2, YK-2F, YK-3) were 1010, 540, 835, 828, 1117, 974 and 604, respectively. The difference was significantly related to the different mineral composition. Both mines had their own dominant microorganisms at the phylum level, and Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were their dominant phyla. At the same time, there were significant differences in the composition of microbial communities in the two mines (P<0.05), and the differences in weathering product samples from different mines were particularly significant (P<0.001). At the genus level, the relative abundance of pegmatite ore NK-1 dominant genera (greater than 5%) was Sphingomonas, Massilia; weathered product NK-1F was Paenibacillus, Bacillus, Massilia. The dominant genera of the weathered ore YK-1F was Blastococcus, Candidatus-Solibacter, Noviherbaspirillum, Burkholderia-Caballeronia-Paraburkholderia, YK-2 was unidentified-Chloroplast, while the granite ores YK-2F and YK-3 were Kitasatospora, Massilia 1174-901-12 and Methylobacterium, respectively. The functional annotations of ore and weathered material samples from different mines all involved six metabolic pathways, including metabolism, genetic information processing, and environmental information processing. [Conclusion] 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing revealed that there were differences in bacterial diversity of lithium ores and its weathering products in different mines, each with unique dominant groups. The differences in bacterial composition, diversity and functional properties between samples closely associated with the mineral composition, weathering degree, and the geographical location. The revealed potential relationships between the elemental geochemical functions of the dominant microbial groups and the surface weathering of lithium-containing minerals provides new data for studies on the microbial ecological distribution and development of microbial resources.