Innate immune response serves as the first line and the most rapid system of host defense against the invasion of microbial pathogens. Pattern recognition receptors in the host innate immune system activate a number of proinflammatory cytokines and cause inflammatory response after recognizing the invasion signal. Viral infections may activate immune responses of host. The strong regulatory network of inflammatory response plays a key role in the antiviral process of host to maintain the homeostasis. This paper reviews the inflammatory response induced by viral infections, focusing on the host regulatory network of inflammatory response, and the mechanisms of DNA and RNA viruses in regulating inflammatory response, aiming to provide some references for the treatment of immune diseases caused by viral infections.
GE Hailiang, LI Su, YU Shaoxiong, LI Shuhong, LI Lianfeng, ZHOU Pingping, YANG Yuying, QIU Hua-Ji.Inflammatory responses to viral infections: a double-edged sword in the antiviral defense of host.[J].Acta Microbiologica Sinica,2022,62(5):1571-1586 Export BibTexEndNote
Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an indispensable first-line drug for the treatment of tuberculosis. It plays a key role in shortening the course of the treatment from 9–12 months to 6 months. The antibiotics rifampicin (R), isoniazid (H), ethambutol (E), and PZA (Z) form the core control regimen for the drug-sensitive Mycobacteriumtuberculosis. However, PZA resistance has led to treatment failure in many patients with the emergence of MDR-TB in recent years. Therefore, it is particularly important for reducing PZA resistance to carry out the susceptibility test. Nevertheless, the test is challenging and often unreliable, as the drug is active only at pH 5.5 which affects the in vitro growth of M. tuberculosis, and thus causes both false-susceptible and false-resistant results. In this review, we summarized the research on susceptibility testing of PZA, hoping to provide a reference for the effective diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis.
Qiu Xiaxia, Zhang Xiaoyu, Li Huiling, Xu Hongwen, Li Heng.Testing of the susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to pyrazinamide.[J].Acta Microbiologica Sinica,2022,62(5):1587-1599 Export BibTexEndNote
The genus Saccharothrix was established in 1984 by Labeda, a famous American taxonomist of actinobacteria. This genus is an important group of rare actinomycetes with filamentous hyphae, and most species have zigzag aerial hyphae during sporulation. They contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in cell wall, abundant phosphatidylethanolamine in phospholipids, MK-9(H4) and MK-10(H4) as the principal menaquinones, and the genus-specific motifs CAC (607–609) and GTG (617–619) in the 16S rRNA gene. Recent studies of genome mining have confirmed the existence of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase genes with high frequency in the genomes of Saccharothrix spp., which have the potential to produce structurally-novel secondary metabolites and enzyme products with diverse activities. Further, Saccharothrix can produce derivatives of known antibiotics or antibiotics with new structures, such as dithiopyrrolones, lactams, anthracyclines, and chloramphenicol, which have a great value in antiviral, antibacterial and antitumor treatment. Moreover, Saccharothrix serves as a new microbial resource for the production of industrial enzyme preparations, which has strong development potential in the application of enzyme preparations. New active enzymes such as chitinase and cellulase generated by the metabolism of Saccharothrix are widely used in modern agriculture, light industry and other fields. Owing to the unique genetic and metabolic diversity, Saccharothrix plays a key role in the degradation of organic pollutants and remediation of heavy metal pollution in soil. On the basis a novel species of Saccharothrix discovered by our laboratory and relevant literature, we reviewed the typical taxonomic characteristics, genomics, secondary metabolites, and enzyme development of Saccharothrix, aiming to provide a scientific basis for further mining the Saccharothrix strains with application potential.
ZHANG Ya, CAO Chengliang, LI Rongpeng, JIANG Jihong.Recent advance on the genus Saccharothrix.[J].Acta Microbiologica Sinica,2022,62(5):1600-1612 Export BibTexEndNote
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), the products of cell life activities, are the nanoscale phospholipid bilayers encapsulating nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and other molecules. A growing number of studies have demonstrated that EVs can be secreted by bacteria as “bait” for antibiotics and phages to perform defense functions. In addition, EVs play a role in the delivery of virulence factors, cellular communication, horizontal gene transfer, nutrient and electron transfer, and biofilm formation. Therefore, EVs are essential for organism individuals and communities. Here, we review the formation mechanism, extraction and identification methods, and the factors that influence the secretion of EVs. We focus on their biological functions and the research progress in the environmental field to provide a reference for relevant studies in the future.
HUANG Haining, HUANG Qiansheng.Research progress on extracellular vesicles of bacteria.[J].Acta Microbiologica Sinica,2022,62(5):1613-1628 Export BibTexEndNote