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  • YANG Jie, ZHANG Anqi, FENG Jiaxun, ZHAO Shuai, ZHAO Xinqing
    Acta Microbiologica Sinica. 2023,63(1):1-14
    DOI: 10.13343/j.cnki.wsxb.20220257
    Small open reading frames (sORFs) are ubiquitous in the genomes of living organisms, which are generally not fully annotated and studied due to their short length and difficulty in detection of their encoded small proteins (also termed microproteins or miniproteins). With the advancement of high-throughput sequencing, translatomics and mass spectrometry, increasing sORFs have been identified in different living organisms. At the same time, specific bioinformatic tools have also contribute to the mining of sORFs. Small proteins encoded by sORFs as well as translational regulation mediated by sORFs have been applied in medicinal development and exploration of mechanisms underlying plant disease resistance. However, the studies and applications of sORFs in microorganisms remain limited. This review summarizes the latest progress in the identification of small proteins encoded by sORFs, the annotation of upstream open reading frames (uORFs), as well as uORF-mediated regulation on mRNA translation. In particular, we reviewed the identification and functional analysis of sORFs in microbial genomes, especially budding yeast and filamentous fungi. This review provides a basis for understanding the function and mechanism of sORFs, as well as studies on microproteins and translation regulation in other organisms including plans and animals.
    Citation
    YANG Jie, ZHANG Anqi, FENG Jiaxun, ZHAO Shuai, ZHAO Xinqing.Progress in small open reading frames (sORFs) in microorganisms: small proteins and translational regulation.[J].Acta Microbiologica Sinica,2023,63(1):1-14
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  • WEI Yi, XIAO Yunjie, YANG Haitao, WANG Zefang
    Acta Microbiologica Sinica. 2023,63(1):15-29
    DOI: 10.13343/j.cnki.wsxb.20220262
    As biotechnology advances, biodegradation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) has emerged as an attractive strategy, promising to reduce the environmental burden caused by waste PET. Among many PET hydrolases, PETase from Ideonella sakaiensis has become a hot research topic owing to high specificity to PET substrate. Based on the structure and function of PETase, this review summarized modifications of this enzyme in recent years to improve the degradation activity, thermostability, and adsorption of the enzyme. Moreover, we also introduced the secretory expression systems and the cell surface display of PETase, as well as the application of the PETase together with MHETase. Finally, we summed up the challenges in and possible solutions to plastic biodegradation. This study is expected to provide a reference for promoting the practical application of polymer biodegradation.
    Citation
    WEI Yi, XIAO Yunjie, YANG Haitao, WANG Zefang.Polyethylene terephthalate hydrolase IsPETase and its application prospect.[J].Acta Microbiologica Sinica,2023,63(1):15-29
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  • Aromatic hydrocarbons, a class of organic compounds with one or more benzene rings, are ubiquitous in the natural environment. They are difficult be degraded naturally and thus easy to be bioaccumulated, posing a huge threat to the environment. Biological degradation seems to be the mainstream method for the transformation of organic compounds, and electroactive microorganisms have great potential in the removal of aromatic hydrocarbons because of their unique extracellular electron transport ability and physiological metabolism mode. They can finally achieve the degradation and mineralization of aromatic hydrocarbon pollutants by combining reductive dehalogenation and denitrification and oxidative ring cleavage. In this paper, we focused on the main reduction/oxidation reaction mechanisms in the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbon pollutants by electroactive microorganisms, summarized the key enzyme activities, metabolic pathways, and transformation mechanism of electroactive microorganisms in the reductive dehalogenation and denitrification, analyzed the ring cleavage modes and metabolic pathways of electroactive microorganisms under different oxygen-containing conditions, and improved the extracellular electron transport process of the microorganisms by regulating microbial extracellular polymers and adding conductive materials. Moreover, we discussed the influence of electrode potential, electrode materials, and environmental factors such as electrolyte properties and temperature on the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, and the feasibility of enhanced biodegradation strategies for aromatic hydrocarbon pollutants. Finally, in order to provide theoretical and technical reference for accelerating the engineering application of bioelectrochemical systems, we summed up the directions of future potential research in the related fields of electroactive microbial degradation technology.
    Citation
    WU Duoer, CHEN Long, MA Xiangjuan, DING Yangcheng, FENG Huajun.Transformation mechanism of aromatic hydrocarbon pollutants based on electroactive microorganisms.[J].Acta Microbiologica Sinica,2023,63(1):30-44
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  • The increase in people’s life pressure makes many men in the middle age suffer from hair loss, even alopecia areata or alopecia totalis, in which androgenetic alopecia is the most common. The occurrence of androgenetic alopecia is mainly due to the high content of testosterone (T) and its metabolite dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the scalp. The 5α-reductase in the hair follicle converts free T to active DHT, resulting in excessive androgen which can make hair follicles more microscopic and shorten the hair growth cycle to cause hair loss. A growing number of studies based on the gut-skin axis theory have demonstrated that probiotics can alleviate or treat hair loss. Probiotics can regulate the balance of intestinal flora and promote the expression of hair growth factors and the growth of hair follicle cells to alleviate the hair loss caused by excessive pressure or androgen. This paper mainly discusses the association between probiotics and hair growth. Focusing on the regulatory effects of probiotics on nervous system, immune system, and endocrine system, we reviewed the functions and action mechanism of probiotics, aiming to provide a theoretical basis for the research and development of food and drugs alleviating hair loss.
    Citation
    YING Hang, XIE Xinqiang, ZHANG Jumei, CHEN Huiyuan, WU Qingping.Progress in the mechanism of probiotics in alleviating hair loss based on the gut-skin axis theory.[J].Acta Microbiologica Sinica,2023,63(1):45-58
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